Breast v bottle? Motherhood is messy enough without picking sides | Hadley Freeman

Its among lifes paradoxes that this dispute will rave most loudly when a female is at her most susceptible

M y experience with breastfeeding was as unwinded as it was totally irregular. I had a C-section, which suggested I remained in medical facility a couple of nights to recuperate, which indicated in turn I was familiar with among the night nurses. Every night, she made the effort to teach me the essentials of breastfeeding, assuring me that I was doing simply marvellously.

When I got house, a pal who, like me, had twins, informed me that if I wished to maintain my peace of mind I ought to get some assistance a number of nights a week (our subject for today is feeding, however synchronising the sleep patterns of newborn twins will one day be my magnum opus). I was fortunate sufficient to be able to manage this, which suggested that somebody routinely pertained to my house and, once again, assisted me breastfeed. She unhesitatingly revealed me how to make formula when I informed her I desired to do blended feeding– breast milk and formula– since my body required a break. As an outcome, I experienced none of the anguished feelings I ‘d seen a lot of pals go through about feeding. This is since I was blessed with luck (conference the nurse) and advantage (having the ability to manage aid), neither of which ought to be the identifying aspects about how a female feeds her infant.

Last week it emerged that the National Childbirth Trust’s (NCT) president, Sena Talbot, has actually resigned, irritated that the organisation initially referred to as the Natural Childbirth Trust is openly supporting moms and dads who utilize formula. “The proof is truly clear that breast milk is much better for infants than formula milk,” she informed the Guardian . “We need to utilize that details to make certain that females are completely notified when pregnant, so that they can then choose what option is ideal for them.”

This stimulated a multitude of commentary about the “war” in between breast- and bottle feeding moms and dads, a framing that is false and unhelpful. A lot of moms will attempt both. The polarised language with which such options are typically talked about– the lactivists versus the formula feeders! the natural birth evangelists versus the C-sections!– does not show most ladies’s truth. Motherhood is untidy and withstands remaining within the lines of one’s own expectations, not to mention more comprehensive ideological arguments.

But this does not stop supporters on both sides recommending otherwise, and it’s one of life’s more regrettable paradoxes that it is when a lady is at her most tired and susceptible that these arguments will rave around her most loudly. No doubt, formula business have actually utilized doubtful marketing techniques , however breastfeeding advocates can likewise be guilty of exaggeration and psychological blackmail.

Talbot’s remark is a classic of the category: not informing ladies breast is finest is avoiding them from making the right (“notified”) option. This relies on worldwide population data as opposed to private requirement. Yes, breast milk has some advantages over formula– however are they actually worth a mom ending up being desperate as her child drops weight since she can’t feed him with her broken and bleeding nipples? Plainly not, and the much-vaunted benefits of breastfeeding are specifically minimal when we’re speaking about moms who can pay for the NCT’s antenatal classes, moms who will most likely have access to tidy water and a steriliser. Supporters talk passionately about how females who are unsupported stopped breastfeeding earlier than they ‘d like, which this threats postnatal anxiety. They do not appear to think about that possibly this has less to do with breastfeeding itself, and more to do with it being energetically offered to ladies as the maternal perfect.

I never ever went to an NCT class since pals’ stories recommended that the organisation’s assistance of brand-new moms frequently blurred into advocacy of so-called “natural parenting”. (When one buddy asked an NCT group leader about discomfort relief throughout giving birth she was recommended to “attempt noise”, an idea that would have led to me making the noise of hysterical laughter.) If the NCT is now giving up ideology for a more sensible technique that is plainly a good idea, due to the fact that investing maternal options with a frightening however unclear ethical measurement is harming to infants and ladies.

The reality is, ladies in this nation aren’t offered enough breastfeeding assistance, thanks not least to austerity: over the last few years, a minimum of 44% of regional authority locations in England have actually been impacted by closures or cuts to breastfeeding services . Those who desire to offer it– or get it– feel under hazard and dig their heels in more difficult. When my sis had her very first child in Switzerland, the regional council scheduled her to meet a feeding specialist weekly. In Britain, who can moms rely on for routine, complimentary, non-ideological guidance?

When I had my infants, I seemed like Alice toppling into Wonderland, beleaguered on all sides by mystifying and frequently inconsistent recommendations. I was lucky to discover 2 females who taught me to trust myself and ignore the rest, who understood that females ought to invest less time attempting to determine up to the expectations of others, and more time asking themselves what they in fact require. This is the least we ought to offer all moms, and the only escape of the bunny hole.

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Read more: https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/commentisfree/2019/may/04/breastfeeding-v-bottle-motherhood-hadley-freeman

Raising a black son in the US: He had never taken a breath, and I was already mourning him

Even prior to her child was born, Jesmyn Ward was preoccupied with something how she would prepare him for survival

F# SEEEE ive years back, I bore my very first kid, a child. She was born 6 weeks early. When she emerged from behind the camping tent protecting my stomach, she was sluggish to fade and weep. In a reaction that I repent to confess, and one that I presume was owned by anaesthesia, tension and shock, my very first words to her were, “Why is she so white?” My obstetrician chuckled as she started the work of preparing to sew me support. I lay there silently, stunned by truths: I was a mom. I had a kid, a ghostly, long-limbed child, who was still curved from the womb.

On the eve of my child’s very first birthday, I felt as if I ‘d endured an onslaught. I ‘d nursed her to plumpness, end up being attuned to her breathy weeps as she got used to life outside my body, discovered how to follow a list whenever she was upset (Hungry? Dirty? Exhausted? Overstimulated?). When my services to the list in some cases did not alleviate her to relax, I discovered how to bring her and stroll, to reiterate and once again in her ear the exact same expression, “Mommy’s got you. Mommy’s got you. It’s OKAY, honey, Mommy’s got you.” I stated it and felt a strong love in me hurry to the rhythm of the words, a sure genuineness. I indicated it. I would constantly hold her, have her, never ever let her fall.

When I learnt I was pregnant once again, I enjoyed. I desired another kid. That joy was wound with concern from the start: I was distressed about whether I might handle 2 kids, about whether or not I would be able to be an excellent moms and dad to both my kids similarly, whether the thick love I felt for my child would blanket my other kid. And I was fearing pregnancy, the weeks of day-to-day migraines, of random pains and discomforts.

As the months advanced, I established gestational diabetes, and agonised over the possibility of another early birth. I desired my 2nd kid to have the time in the womb my very first didn’t. I desired to provide the 2nd the security and time my body stopped working to offer the. I likewise went through a whole battery of tests for hereditary problems. A perk of among the tests was that I would discover the sex of the kid I was bring. When the nurse contacted us to provide my test results, I fidgeted. My stomach turned to stone inside me and sank when she informed me I was having a kid. “Oh God,” I believed, “I’m going to bear a black young boy into the world.” I fabricated pleasure to the white nurse and dropped the phone after the call ended. I wept. Since the very first thing I believed of when the nurse informed me I would have a kid was my dead sibling, #peeee

I wept. He passed away 17 years ago this year, however his leaving feels as fresh as if he were eliminated simply a month back by an intoxicated motorist who would never ever be charged. Fresh as my sorrow, which strolls with me like among my kids. It is ever-present, silent-footed. In some cases, it surprises me. When I understand part of me is still waiting for my sibling to return, like. Or when I understand how increasingly I hurt to see him once again, to see his dark eyes and his thin mouth and his even shoulders, to feel his rough palms or his buttery scalp or his downy cheeks. To hear him speak and laugh.

Jesmyn Jesmyn Ward and her kid. Picture: Beowulf Sheehan

I took a look at the phone on the flooring and idea of the little young boy swimming inside me and of the boys I understand from my little neighborhood in DeLisle, Mississippi, who have actually passed away young. There are numerous. Numerous are from my extended household. They are or drown shot or run over by cars and trucks. A lot of, one after another. A cousin here, a great-grandfather there. Some passed away prior to they were even old adequate lawfully to purchase alcohol. Some passed away prior to they might even vote. The discomfort of their lack strolls with their enjoyed ones underneath the damp Mississippi sky, the bowing pines, the reaching oak. We stroll hand in hand in the American South: phantom kids, ghostly brother or sisters, spectre buddies.

As the months passed, I could not sleep. I lay awake during the night, fretting over the world I was bearing my kid into. A procession of dead black guys circled my bed. Philando Castile was shot and eliminated while his sweetheart and child remained in the automobile. Alton Sterling was eliminated in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, and the cops who shot him were never ever held liable for his murder, for shooting and eliminating the male who smiles in fuzzy images, for letting him bleed out in front of a corner store. Eric Garner choked versus journalism of the lower arm at his throat. “I cannot breathe,” he stated. “I cannot breathe.”

My child had actually never ever breathed, and I was currently grieving him.

***

I check out ceaselessly while I was pregnant. I typically checked out and woke in the early hours since I might not sleep. At the time, I was researching for my 4th book, which is embeded in New Orleans and Louisiana throughout the height of the domestic servant trade. One day, I check out an enslaved female whose master was working her to death to select as much cotton as she might on a plantation in Mississippi. She was pregnant and bore a kid. Throughout the day, she left her kid at the edge of the cotton field where others would view it, so she might labor down the rows. She had no option. Her kid sobbed, and it sidetracked her, slowed the build-up of cotton bolls in her sack. The overseer observed. He informed her to mind her row, not her kid. Still, it was as if she was delicate to the keening of the infant. She attempted to disregard her kid’s sobs and concentrate on the rows, however still she lagged. The overseer cautioned her once again. The enslaved female aimed to silence her tender mom’s heart, however could not; her baby’s weeps muddled her motions, bound her fingers. The overseer observed for the last time, and in a fit of rage he stalked to the baby sobbing for milk at the edge of the field and eliminated it. In the overseer’s evaluation, the mom was a maker– a wagon, possibly, made to bear and carry loads. The kid: a damaged wheel. Something to eliminate to make the wagon functional once again. After I read this, I could not think of the lady however assist, damaged and speechless. Dragging her method through the American fields.

In a book about maroon neighborhoods who got away slavery in the United States, I experienced more kids, however these kids were totally free, after a style. Their moms and dads ran away slavery, took themselves back from the masters who had actually taken them. Frequently, these moms and dads dug collapse the forests of the south, along river banks. They removed cabin-sized holes in the ground and developed rough furnishings from the wood around them. They emerged from the cavern just in the evening, as they were terrified of being regained. They burned fires moderately, constructed chimney tunnels that extended metres from their underground houses to divert the smoke from their dark houses. To fool their pursuers. In some cases, they bore kids in the caverns. I envision a female crouching in the dark, panting versus the discomfort, utilizing every bit of self-discipline she had actually curried in the unlimited cotton fields to reduce her desire to shriek as her body burst and she provided. The odor of river water and damp sand under her toes.

The females who had actually released themselves raised their kids in the dark. Throughout the day, they consumed underground, worked underground, entertaining themselves as they worked by informing stories to one another. Often, their moms and dads let the kids climb up above ground in the evening to play amongst the dark trees in the light of the moon. The scary of that option stuck with me as my kid kicked at the bounds of my stubborn belly. How dreadful to fear being captured and gone back to slavery, to abuse, to inhuman treatment; how universal that worry should have been. How the moms and dads needed to compromise their kids’s lives to conserve them. There are legends that state that after emancipation, their moms and dads presented the kids of the caverns to the sunlit world, and the kids were permanently stooped from learning how to stroll listed below the caverns’ walls, permanently squinting versus the too brilliant world.

The typical thread of my reading and experience was this: black kids are not approved youths. Our kids were problems up until old adequate to offer and work when we were shackled. When we left to liberty, black kids were liabilities, required to flex low under the weight of a system intent on discovering them, taking them, and offering them. After emancipation, kids as young as 12 were accuseded of minor criminal offenses such as vagrancy and loitering and sent out to Parchman jail farm in Mississippi and re-enslaved; they worked to collapse in the cotton fields, laid track for railways chained to other black guys, threw up and fell under Black Betty, the overseer’s whip, and passed away when they tried to get away under the eye of the weapon, at the grace of the tracking canine.

Today, the weight of the previous bears greatly on today. Now, black kids and ladies are disciplined more than their white schoolmates. They are presumed of drug dealing and strip-searched. School authorities press charges and call the authorities if they battle each other or talk back to instructors in school. (This is the school-to-prison pipeline.) They are segregated into poorer schools. Their schools collapse, starved for funds. They are provided books that warp history, that lie to them and inform them their taken forefathers were “guest employees”. Authorities battle them to the ground in class, body knocked them at swimming pool celebrations in Texas. The state will not manage them the presents of youth, as it marks them from the start as less than: a hooded hazard in the making, an extremely predator in training with a toy weapon, a fledgling well-being queen. Maybe this is exactly what takes place when a kid can not be commodified, not be purchased and offered. When a country reinvests through the centuries in the concept that permits it to grow: the other need to be suppressed, sequestered, constrained. Today, the stooped kids stroll in the daytime, however they pass away because daytime, too.

***

Even though I did whatever I might to avoid an early birth, my child, like my child, came early. I entered into labour at 33 weeks. When my physician informed me I remained in labour, I did exactly what I might to stop it. I required to my bed, enjoyed films and check out. My efforts at relaxation didn’t work. I went to the medical facility and provided by caesarean early the next October early morning. When they pulled my boy from my stomach, he wailed and took a deep breath, breathed in and wailed once again and once again. His arms flung out, his toes and fingers prevalent. His body arched in panic. The nurse briefly stopped briefly with him beside my face, and all I had eyes for were his securely closed eyes, his sobbing mouth. “I’m sorry,” I stated. “I’m sorry, I’m sorry, I’m so sorry.”

My child was 4 pounds when he was born, and I stressed over him in his incubator, distressed over his weight, his colour, the flap of his feet over his legs. I discovered the best ways to massage him to assist his advancement and food digestion. He was all stomach and head, when I held him to feed him, I admired how thin his skin appeared. How delicate he appeared. He appeared to have little regard for my nervousness. From his very first weeks of life, he consumed voraciously, drawing down bottles of milk quickly, locking despite the fact that his mouth needs to have been too little, his cheek muscles too weak. When I took him house, he put on weight rapidly, armoured himself in fat. He established great motor abilities on par with kids born upon time. My boy, it appeared, was up for the battle to live.

When his face grew to a fat moon, my kid smiled and revealed dimples as deep as my dad’s. He charmed. He stands in my lap and babbles to everybody boarding the airplane when he flies with me. He leans over to our row mates and touches the other traveler’s arms. White women with ideal teeth using perfectly customized clothes smile at his sure, chubby fingers.

“He’s lovable,” they state.

White males with team cuts, weathered faces and ruddy necks, smile at him. “I’m sorry,” I inform them. “He prefers to touch individuals.”

“It’s OKAY,” they respond. “He’s so friendly!”

They connect a finger so he will get it, so he will shake their hand. He provides a high 5, then my kid relies on the window to squeal and slap the glass, to try to speak with the travel luggage handlers. I hug his soft bottom, his doughy legs, and doubt what age my wispy-haired, social young boy will find out that he cannot connect his hand to every complete stranger. When the spotless girls flinch, I question how old he will be. When the ruddy guys will see a shadow of a weapon in his open palm. I understand it will take place prior to he turns 17, considering that this is how old Trayvon Martin was when George Zimmerman stalked him through the streets of a Florida suburban area and eliminated him. I understand it will occur prior to he turns 14, because this is how old Emmett Till was when Carolyn Bryant lied that he whistled at her, and after that Roy Bryant and John William Milam abducted him, beat him, and mutilated him prior to discarding him into the Tallahatchie river. I understand it will occur prior to he turns 12, because this is how old Tamir Rice was when authorities found him having fun with a toy weapon in a park and shot him two times in the abdominal area so that he passed away the next day.

To be safe, I choose I must inform him about his ghostly siblings by the time he is 10. I need to inform him about Trayvon, about Emmett, about Tamir, prior to he gets in the age of puberty, prior to he loses his child fat, prior to his voice deepens and his chest widens. I have 9 years to find out how I will address his very first concern about his phantom brother or sisters: Why? Why did they pass away? I am grateful for the time I need to develop my reply. I am likewise mad, since I understand when I address his concern about all the black individuals America has actually broken, taken, ground down, and eliminated, I will be rejecting his youth. Straining him with comprehending beyond his years. Darkening his innocence. That the truth of living as a black individual, a black male in America will need me to interrupt my charming, gap-toothed young boy’s youth. In these minutes, I believe I understand a little of exactly what it should have resembled for those runaway moms and dads, who bent their kids blind and quiet to give them their adult years. That I understand a little of exactly what it needs to have seemed like to take bolls in the fields, to hear the soft-bellied child weeping and reject the baby milk. To reject your kid the present of youth in the hopes you can raise them to the adult years.

I hope my kid is fortunate. I hope he is never ever in the incorrect time at the incorrect put on the incorrect end of a weapon. I hope he is never ever susceptible with those who want to damage him. I hope I enjoy him enough in the time I have with him, that while he can be a kid, I offer him the presents of a youth: that I bake chocolate chip cookies and whisper stories to him at bedtime and let him leap in muddy puddles after heavy rains, so he can understand exactly what it is to rupture with pleasure. I hope he endures his early teenage years with a kernel of that happiness lodged in his heart, covered in the fodder of my love. I hope his natural will to flourish, to eliminate to grow, is strong. I hope I never ever fail him. I hope he sees 12 and 21 and 40 and 62. I hope he and his sis bury me. I hope. I hope. I hope.

Sing, Unburied, Sing, by Jesmyn Ward, is released next week by Bloomsbury at 16.99. To buy a copy for 14.44, go to guardianbookshop.com or call 03303336846.

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Read more: https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2017/oct/28/raising-black-son-america

The U.S. Opioid Crisis Hits Tasmanias Poppy Farmers

Glynn Williams, a fifth-generation Australian farmer, is feeling the effect of a public health crisis unfolding 8,000 miles away. His household plants potatoes and raises livestock on Tasmania &#x 2019; s wind-swept northwest. Williams, 48, likewise grows poppies, the plants that produce the raw opiate in such prescription drugs as&#xA 0; oxycodone, &#xA 0; which are blamed for &#xA 0; an &#xA 0; epidemic &#xA 0; of overdose deaths in the United States

With the United States enforcing more stringent guidelines on making use of &#xA 0; pain relievers, need for the raw product has actually toppled. Poppy growers in Tasmania &#xA 0; have actually reacted by downsizing or quiting on the crop completely. &#xA 0; The state is the source of about half of international &#xA 0; supply, thanks to a 1971 contract with the Commonwealth of Australia &#xA 0; that gave it &#xA 0; a decades-long monopoly on poppy growing.

Six years earlier, poppies covered about &#xA 0; a sixth of Williams &#x 2019; s 255-hectare( 630-acre )farm. In 2015 &#xA 0; he planted some 14 hectares of the pink-flowering crop and has actually called that back to about 10 hectares this season. &#xA 0; &#x 201C; We &#x 2019; ve stated, &#xA 0; &#x 2018; No,we can &#x 2019; t pay for to take the danger, &#x 2019; &#x 201D; he states. &#x 201C; We &#x 2019; ve needed to recalibrate our farm substantially. &#x 201D;

Tasmanian farmers like Williams are reeling from the effect of federal government and business&#xA 0; efforts &#xA 0; to stem the abuse of prescription pain relievers and their unlawful knockoffs. The volume of opioid-based medications recommended in the United States has actually dropped 28 percent considering that 2012 following relocations by the Drug Enforcement Agency to tighten up gain access to, inning accordance with a &#xA 0; report &#xA 0; released last month by Bloomberg Intelligence. &#xA 0; &#x 201C; The prescription branded-opioid market is at its floor in practically a years, &#x 201D; Bloomberg Intelligence experts &#xA 0; Curt Wanek &#xA 0; and &#xA 0; Elizabeth Krutoholow &#xA 0; composed.

Poppy seeds all set for planting in Launceston, Tasmania.
Photographer: Christina Simons/NYTNS

On Sept. 21,&#xA 0; CVS Health Corp. , among the biggest pharmacy chains in the United States, revealed&#xA 0; a series of steps targeting opioid abuse, consisting of a brand-new seven-day limitation&#xA 0; for specific prescriptions of the addicting drugs. Containing&#xA 0; 5 percent of the world &#x 2019; s population, the United States takes in a projected&#xA 0; 80 percent &#xA 0; of the world&#x 2019; s opioids, &#xA 0; Angus Deaton, a British-American economic expert and 2015 Nobel laureate, informed a Senate committee in June.

Thebaine &#x 2014; drawn out from poppy straw &#x 2014; is the primary opiate alkaloid in oxycodone, and Australia is its biggest manufacturer, representing 80 percent of worldwide supply in 2015, inning accordance with the most current information from the International Narcotics Control Board, a firm that keeps track of compliance with United Nations conventions on drugs. Australia &#x 2019; s production of poppy straw&#xA 0; plunged to 172 loads in 2015, from 268 heaps a year previously.

Tasmanian farmers will plant about 12,000 hectares of poppies this season, less than half the 2013 harvest of about 28,000 hectares, inning accordance with&#xA 0; Poppy Growers Tasmania Inc. , a trade group that represents about 90 percent of the state &#x 2019; s manufacturers. The&#xA 0; decrease shows a high drop in exactly what processing business want to pay: The crop gathered in January and February of this year deserved about A$ 35 million ($27 million) at the farm gate, compared to about A$ 100 million after&#xA 0; the 2013 harvest.

&#x 201C; Growers are now taking a look at the cost decreases and asking whether it &#x 2019; s a practical operation, &#x 201D; states&#xA 0; Keith Rice, ceo of Poppy Growers Tasmania, which approximates its subscription has actually been up to about 450 from 850 in 2013. He decreased to state what does it cost? his members normally get for their crop.

Tasmania is dealing with more competitors: Three states on the Australian mainland have actually alleviated limitations on poppy growing recently. Farmers such as&#xA 0; Williams are likewise needing to compete with modifications along the supply chain, as 2 of the nation &#x 2019; s 3 certified poppy processors have actually gone through ownership modifications over the last few years.&#xA 0; GlaxoSmithKline Plc &#xA 0; offered its service to Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. , India &#x 2019; s biggest drugmaker,&#xA 0; in 2015. &#xA 0; SK Capital Partners LP , a New York-based personal equity company, purchased&#xA 0; Johnson &&Johnson &#x 2019; s Tasmanian Alkaloids subsidiary in 2015. Costs were not divulged in either deal.

An alerting indication at a poppy field in Tasmania.
Photograph: Age Fotostock/Alamy

Sun Pharma decreased to discuss prepare for its opiates service. Tasmanian Alkaloids states it &#x 2019; s checking out options to opiates. In May, it formed a collaboration with&#xA 0; AusCann Group Holdings Ltd. , a medical cannabis business from Adelaide, in South Australia, to disperse and produce marijuana items.&#xA 0; &#x 201C; Demand has actually softened, however Tasmanian Alkaloids is a varied business that likewise offers non-controlled ended up products &#x 201D; such as products that are utilized to make treatments for conditions aside from discomfort, consisting of weight problems and irregularity, stated Managing Director Doug Blackaby&#xA 0; in an emailed action to concerns. &#x 201C; We are actively taking a look at various chances to diversify our client and item variety. &#x 201D;

The tiniest Australian poppy processor, Melbourne-based&#xA 0; TPI Enterprises Ltd. , likewise is&#xA 0; thinking about moving into cannabis: It was just recently given licenses by&#xA 0; Australia &#x 2019; s Department of Health for medical marijuana growing and research study.

The business isn &#x 2019; t quiting on opioids, however.&#xA 0; On Oct. 3 &#xA 0; it finished theacquisition of the &#xA 0; opiate components and tablets company of Norway &#x 2019; s Vistin Pharma ASA for A$ 25.6 million. The only Australian-based processor that &#x 2019; s openly traded, TPI will have earnings of A$ 48.9 million in the year ending Dec. 31, 2018, inning accordance with expert price quotes assembled by Bloomberg, up from A$ 10.5 million in 2016. Handling Director Jarrod Ritchie states that in spite of the opioid reaction in the&#xA 0; U.S., business like his still have space to grow.&#xA 0; &#x 201C; Ninety percent of the world &#x 2019; s population doesn &#x 2019; t get access to the most inexpensive discomfort relief item, which is morphine, &#x 201D; he states.&#xA 0;

As they wait on a rebound in need, Tasmania &#x 2019; s poppy farmers have to concentrate on ending up being more effective, inning accordance with Rice of Poppy Growers Tasmania. Some growers have actually handled to increase their yields to approximately about 40 kgs of active basic material per hectare, up from 25 kgs 5 years back. &#x 201C; It is a truly, truly hard market out there, and it doesn &#x 2019; t appear like it &#x 2019; s enhancing, &#x 201D; he states. &#x 201C; The only thing at today time to make it practical is increasing efficiency. That &#x 2019; s the message we &#x 2019; re providing our individuals. &#x 201D;

    Read more: http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-10-24/the-u-s-opioid-crisis-hits-tasmania-s-poppy-farmers